Mobile Food Preparation Vehicles

Section 319: Mobile Food Preparation Vehicles

Mobile Food Preparation Vehicle Information Flyer

319.1 General.

Mobile food preparation vehicles that are equipped with appliances that utilize open flames or produce smoke or grease laden vapors shall comply with this section.

319.1.1 Wheel chocks.

Wheel chocks shall be used to prevent mobile food preparation vehicles from moving.

319.1.2 Separation.

Mobile food preparation vehicles shall be separated from buildings or structures, combustible materials, vehicles, and other cooking operations by a minimum of 10 feet (3 m).

319.2 Permit required.

Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 107.2.

319.2.1 Permit Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ).

The enforcing agent of a permit requirement on a mobile food preparation vehicle (MFPV) shall be the appointed fire official for the Virginia local government which the food truck is identified for personal property tax payment of the vehicle. If no such entity exists, if the local government has elected to not enforce this section of the SFPC, or if the MFPV is housed out of state, then it shall be the State Fire Marshal's Office (SFMO) or designee.

319.3 Seating.

Seating for the public within any mobile food preparation vehicle is prohibited.

319.4 Exhaust hood.

Cooking equipment that produces grease laden vapors shall be provided with a kitchen exhaust hood in accordance with NFPA 96, Annex B.

319.5 Fire protection.

Fire protection shall be provided in accordance with Sections 319.5.1 through 319.5.2.

319.5.1 Fire protection for cooking equipment.

Cooking equipment shall be protected by automatic fire-extinguishing systems in accordance with Section 904.3.1.

319.5.2 Fire extinguisher.

Portable fire extinguishers shall be provided in accordance with Section 906.4.

319.6 Appliance connection to fuel supply.

Gas cooking appliances shall be secured in place and connected to fuel supply piping with an appliance connector complying with ANSI Z21.69/CSA 6.16. The connector installation shall be configured in accordance with manufacturer's installation instructions. Movement of appliances shall be limited by restraining devices installed in accordance with the connector and appliance manufacturer's instructions.

319.6.1 Construction and modifications.

Following initial construction and any modifications of the fuel system, the system, including hoses, shall be proven free of leaks by performing a pressure test in accordance with NFPA 58 at not less than the normal operating pressure.

319.6.2 Leak detection.

Gas systems shall be inspected prior to each use and following fuel tank replacement or refill in one of the following methods:

  1. 1.A water and soap solution shall be applied to every accessible connection or connection manipulated during the replacement or fueling and observed for evidence of gas leakage.
  2. 2.Pressure testing in accordance with Annex L of NFPA 58.

319.6.3 Leaks.

When leaks are discovered during inspections and testing, the fuel supply shall be secured in the “off” position or disconnected from the appliance, and the appliance shall not be operated until serviced by a qualified person.

319.7 Cooking oil storage containers.

Cooking oil storage containers within mobile food preparation vehicles shall have a minimum aggregate area volume not to exceed 120 gallons (454 L) and shall be stored in such a way as to not be toppled or damaged during transport.

319.8 Cooking oil storage tanks.

Cooking oil storage tanks within mobile food preparation vehicles shall comply with Sections 319.8.1 through 319.8.5.

319.8.1 Metallic storage tanks.

Metallic cooking oil storage tanks shall be listed in accordance with UL 142 or UL 80, and shall be installed in accordance with the tank manufacturer's instructions.

319.8.2 Nonmetallic tanks.

Nonmetallic cooking oil storage tanks shall be installed in accordance with the tank manufacturer's instructions and shall also comply with all of the following:

  1. 1.Tanks shall be listed for use with cooking oil, including maximum temperature to which the tanks will be exposed to during use.
  1. 2.Tank capacity shall not exceed 200 gallons (757 L) per tank.

319.8.3 Cooking oil storage system components.

Metallic and nonmetallic cooking oil storage system components shall include piping, connections, fittings, valves, tubing, hose, pumps, vents, and other related components used for the transfer of cooking oil.

319.8.4 Design criteria.

The design, fabrication, and assembly of system components shall be suitable for the working pressures, temperatures, and structural stresses to be encountered by the components.

319.8.5 Tank venting.

Normal and emergency venting shall be provided for cooking oil storage tanks.

319.8.5.1 Normal vents.

Normal vents shall be located above the maximum normal liquid line and shall have a minimum effective area not smaller than the largest filling or withdrawal connection. Normal vents are not required to vent to the exterior.

319.8.5.2 Emergency vents.

Emergency relief vents shall be located above the maximum normal liquid line and shall be in the form of a device that will relieve excessive internal pressure caused by an exposure fire. For nonmetallic tanks, the emergency relief vent shall be allowed to be in the form of construction. Emergency vents are not required to discharge to the exterior.

319.9 Liquefied petroleum gas (LP-gas) systems.

Where LP-gas systems provide fuel for cooking appliances, such systems shall comply with NFPA 58, Chapter 61 and Sections 319.9.1 through 319.9.5.

319.9.1 Maximum aggregate volume.

The maximum aggregate capacity of LP-gas containers transported on the vehicle and used to fuel cooking appliances only shall not exceed 200 pounds (90.8 kg) propane capacity.

319.9.2 Protection of container.

LP-gas containers installed on the vehicle shall be securely mounted and restrained to prevent movement.

319.9.3 LP-gas container construction.

LP-gas containers shall be manufactured in compliance with the requirements of NPFA 58.

319.9.4 Protection of system piping.

LP-gas system piping, including valves and fittings, shall be adequately protected to prevent tampering, impact damage, and damage from vibration. 

319.9.5 LP-gas alarms.

listed LP-gas alarm shall be installed with the vehicle in the vicinity of LP-gas system components, in accordance with manufacturer's instructions.

319.10 Compressed natural gas (CNG) systems.

Where CNG systems provide fuel for cooking appliances, such systems shall comply with Sections 319.10.1 through 319.10.4.

319.10.1 CNG containers supplying only cooking fuel.

CNG containers installed solely to provide fuel for cooking purposes shall be in accordance with Sections 319.10.1.1 through 319.10.1.3.

319.10.1.1 Maximum aggregate volume.

The maximum aggregate capacity of CNG containers transported on the vehicle shall not exceed 1,300 pounds (590 kg) water capacity.

319.10.1.2 Protection of container.

CNG containers shall be securely mounted and restrained to prevent movement. Containers shall not be installed in locations subject to direct vehicle impact.

319.10.1.3 CNG container construction.

The construction of CNG containers shall be approved.

319.10.2 CNG containers supplying transportation and cooking fuel.

Where CNG containers and systems are used to supply fuel for cooking purposes in addition to being used for transportation fuel, the installation shall be in accordance with NFPA 52.

319.10.3 Protection of system piping.

CNG system piping, including valves and fittings, shall be adequately protected to prevent tampering, impact damage, and damage from vibration.

319.10.4 Methane alarms.

listed methane gas alarm shall be installed within the vehicle in accordance with manufacturer's instructions.

319.11 Maintenance.

Maintenance of systems on mobile food preparation vehicles shall be in accordance with Sections 319.11.1 through 319.11.3.

319.11.1 Exhaust system. 

The exhaust system, including hood, grease-removal devices, fans, ducts and other appurtenances, shall be inspected and cleaned in accordance with Chapter 6.

319.11.2 Fire protection systems and devices.

Fire protection systems and devices shall be maintained in accordance with Chapter 9.

319.11.3 Fuel-gas systems.

LP-gas containers installed on the vehicle and fuel-gas piping systems shall be inspected annually by an approved inspection agency or a company that is registered with the US Department of Transportation to requalify LP-gas cylinders to ensure that system components are free of damage, suitable for the intended service, and not subject to leaking. CNG containers shall be inspected every 3 years in a qualified service facility. CNG containers shall not be used past their expiration dates listed on the manufacturer's container label. Upon satisfactory inspection, the approved inspection agency shall affix a tag on the fuel-gas system or within the vehicle indicating the name of the inspection agency and the date of satisfactory inspection.